Recent Publications

Immune-Response Patterns and Next Generation Sequencing Diagnostics for the Detection of Mycoses in Patients with Septic Shock-Results of a Combined Clinical and Experimental Investigation.

Immune-Response Patterns and Next Generation Sequencing Diagnostics for the Detection of Mycoses in Patients with Septic Shock-Results of a Combined Clinical and Experimental Investigation.

Int J Mol Sci. 2017 Aug 18;18(8):

Authors: Decker SO, Sigl A, Grumaz C, Stevens P, Vainshtein Y, Zimmermann S, Weigand MA, Hofer S, Sohn K, Brenner T

Abstract
Fungi are of increasing importance in sepsis. However, culture-based diagnostic procedures are associated with relevant weaknesses. Therefore, culture- and next-generation sequencing (NGS)-based fungal findings as well as corresponding plasma levels of β-d-glucan, interferon gamma (INF-γ), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-2, -4, -6, -10, -17A, and mid-regional proadrenomedullin (MR-proADM) were evaluated in 50 septic patients at six consecutive time points within 28 days after sepsis onset. Furthermore, immune-response patterns during infections with Candida spp. were studied in a reconstituted human epithelium model. In total, 22% (n = 11) of patients suffered from a fungal infection. An NGS-based diagnostic approach appeared to be suitable for the identification of fungal pathogens in patients suffering from fungemia as well as in patients with negative blood cultures. Moreover, MR-proADM and IL-17A in plasma proved suitable for the identification of patients with a fungal infection. Using RNA-seq., adrenomedullin (ADM) was shown to be a target gene which is upregulated early after an epithelial infection with Candida spp. In summary, an NGS-based diagnostic approach was able to close the diagnostic gap of routinely used culture-based diagnostic procedures, which can be further facilitated by plasmatic measurements of MR-proADM and IL-17A. In addition, ADM was identified as an early target gene in response to epithelial infections with Candida spp.

PMID: 28820494 [PubMed - in process]

GTS-21 reduces microvascular permeability during experimental endotoxemia.

GTS-21 reduces microvascular permeability during experimental endotoxemia.

Microvasc Res. 2017 Aug 14;:

Authors: Schmidt K, Bhakdisongkhram S, Uhle F, Philipsenburg C, Zivkovic AR, Brenner T, Motsch J, Weigand MA, Hofer S

Abstract
INTRODUCTION: No effective pharmacological therapy is currently available to attenuate tissue edema formation due to increased microvascular permeability in sepsis. Cholinergic mediators have been demonstrated to exert anti-inflammatory effects via the α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR) during inflammation. GTS-21, a partial α7nAChR agonist, is an appealing therapeutic substance for sepsis-induced microvascular inflammation due to its demonstrated cholinergic anti-inflammatory properties and its favorable safety profile in clinical trials. This study evaluated the effect of GTS-21 on microvascular permeability and leukocyte adhesion during experimental endotoxemia.
METHODS: Male Wistar rats (n=60) were anesthetized and prepared for intravital microscopy (IVM). Sevoflurane inhalation combined with propofol (10mg/kg) and fentanyl (5μg/kg) was used for anesthesia induction, followed by continuous intravenous anesthesia with propofol (10-40mg/kg/h) and fentanyl (10μg/kg/h). The rat mesentery was prepared for evaluation of macromolecular leakage, leukocyte adhesion and venular wall shear rate in postcapillary venules using IVM. Following baseline IVM recording, GTS-21 (1mg/kg) was applied simultaneously with, 1h prior to and 1h after administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 5mg/kg). Test substances (crystalloid solution, LPS, GTS-21) were administered as volume equivalent intravenous infusions over 5min in the respective treatment groups. The consecutive IVMs were performed at 60, 120 and 180min after the baseline IVM. The systemic inflammatory response was evaluated by measuring TNF-α levels after the 180min IVM.
RESULTS: Microvascular permeability was significantly reduced in animals treated with GTS-21 simultaneously and 1h after induction of endotoxemia. Leukocyte adhesion, venular wall shear rate and TNF-α levels were not affected by GTS-21 treatment compared to the untreated endotoxemic animals.
CONCLUSION: GTS-21 has a protective effect on microvascular barrier function during endotoxemia. Considering its anti-inflammatory efficacy and safety profile, its clinical use might prove beneficial for the treatment of capillary leakage in sepsis therapy.

PMID: 28818494 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]